Treatment optimization of the age-related cardiovascular and neurological pathology using known metabolic, cytoprotective, vasodilatory action substances. Review
Stressful situations that accompany us during military operations provoke a significant increase in the incidence of cardiovascular and psychoneurological pathology, especially among the elderly. Therefore, there is a need for a complex approach to treatment, in particular, with the use of combined drugs.
The review presents data from preclinical and clinical studies on drugs with metabolic action - meldonium (trimethylhydrazinium propionate), L-arginine, and inosine. It has been shown that, apart from the general pharmacotherapeutic action, these drugs have a significant clinical effect on various illnesses in the form of adjunctive therapy. Antioxidant, neuroprotective, vasodilatory, and several pleiotropic effects of meldonium have been established. The use of meldonium as part of combined therapy improves the prognosis in cardiovascular and neurological disease treatment.
Most reports ascribe the clinical benefits of L-arginine in cardiovascular diseases to the provision of NO. L-arginine is the only precursor for the NO-synthase reaction. NO is produced by all tissues of the body and plays particularly important roles in cardiovascular homeostasis. Very few articles examine the effects of L-arginine supplementation on central nervous system (CNS) function. However, accumulating evidence indicates that NO plays a role in memory formation. The possible role of L-arginine in Alzheimer's disease was investigated, taking into account the known functions of L-arginine in atherosclerosis, redox stress and inflammation, regulation of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, as well as modulation of glucose metabolism and insulin activity. Evidence is provided that L-arginine may play a prominent role in protecting against age-related degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. L-arginine has been demonstrated to improve peripheral circulation, renal function, and immune function. It also possesses anti-stress and adaptogenic capabilities. L-arginine stimulates the release of growth hormone as well as the release of pancreatic insulin and glucagon and pituitary prolactin. The antioxidant property of L-arginine has been well documented in several reports.
As well known that inosenhancesance the myocardial energy potential improvesrove coronary circulation. At the same time over the past two decades, inosine has been shown to evoke significant improvements in motor function and visceral organ control in preclinical models of neurologic injury including spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson`s disease through its ability to enhance the growth of axon collaterals from undamaged neurons. The basis of these beneficial effects stems from its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiogenic and neuroprotective properties.
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