Coronavirus disease 2019: neurological aspects. Review and own research

  • Vladislav Bezrukov D. F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • Viktor Kuznetsov D. F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019, neurological complications, bioelectrical activity of the brain, cerebral blood flow, endothelial function

Abstract

Abstract. The main neurological consequences of COVID-19 (depression, psycho-emotional disturbances, strokes, neurodegenerative disorders and others); major ways of coronavirus penetration into the nervous system as well as mechanisms of development of some neurological complications of COVID-19 are presented in the article. The preliminary results of the analysis of changes in the functional state of the central nervous system of 36 patients with dyscirculatory encephalopathy of atherosclerotic and hypertensive genesis of the 1-2 stages before and 3-4 months after COVID-19 have been presented. It was found that in patients who have had COVID-19, there were headaches, sleep disorders, general weakness, memory impairment, muscle and limbs pains.  Reorganization of bioelectrical activity of the brain also appeared. The general structure of the EEG was characterized by an increased power in the range of slow rhythms against a background of decreasing power in the range of cortical rhythms. A tendency to a decrease of cerebral blood flow in the separate vessels of carotid and vertebrobasilar basins, as well as expressed suppression of the vascular endothelial function were also found. It is evident from the results of this study that inclusion of the drugs possessing a multimodal vasoactive and metabolic action is necessary.

Author Biographies

Vladislav Bezrukov, D. F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

MD, DSc (Medicine), Prof., Full Member (Academician) of the NAMS of Ukraine, Director of the D. F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology NAMS of Ukraine, Head of the Department of Aging Biology and Experimental Life Extension

Viktor Kuznetsov, D. F. Chebotarev Institute of Gerontology NAMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
DSc (Medicine), Leading Researcher of Department of Vascular Pathology of the Brain, Department of Rehabilitation of Neurological Patients

References

Yaghi, S.; Ishida, K.; Torres, J.; Mac Grory, B.; Raz, E. et al. SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System. Stroke 2020, 51, 7, 2002-2011. https://doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.120.030335

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Report: Accessed,March 5, 2020. Avilable from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200305-sitrep-45-covid-19.pdf

Wong, F.; Simon, E.; Zimmerman, R.; Wang H.-S.; Toh, C.-H.; Ng, S.-H. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: correlation of MR findings and clinical outcome. AJNR 2006, 27, 9, 1919-1923.

Chan, J.F.-W.; Yuan, S.; Kok, K.-H.; To, K. K.-W.; Chu, H. et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: A study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020, 395, 514–523. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30154-9

Varga, Z.; Flammer, A. J.: Steiger, P.; Haberecker, M.; Andermatt, R. et al. Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19. Lancet 2020, 395(10234) p. 1417-1418. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30937-5

Preobrazhenskaya, I. S. Neurological manifestations of COVID-19. Effective pharmacotherapy 2020, 16, 23, 50–55. (in Russian)

Baig, A. M.; Khaleeq, A.; Ali, U.; Sueda, H. Evidence of the COVID-19 virus targeting the CNS: tissue distribution, hostvirus interaction, and proposed neurotropic mechanisms. ACS Chem Neurosci 2020, 11, 7, 995–998. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00122

Zhou, F.; Yu, T.; Du, R.; Fun, G.; Liu, Yi. et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2020, 395, 1054-1062. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30566-3

Monteil, V.; Kwon, H.; Prado, P.; Hagelkruys, A.; Wimmer, R. A. et al. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Engineered Human Tissues Using Clinical-Grade Soluble Human ACE2. Cell 2020, 181, 4, 905–913.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.004

Niu, J.; Shen, L.; Huang, B.; Ye, F.; Zhao, L. et al. Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging of HCoV-OC43 infection and therapy in the central nervous system of live mice. Antiviral Res 2020, 173, p. 10464 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.104646

Le Guennec, L.; Devianne, J.; Jalin, L.; Cao, A.; Galanaud, D. et al. Orbitofrontal involvement in a neuroCOVID-19 patient. Epilepsia 2020, 61, 8, e90-e94. https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.16612

Li, Y.; Li, H.; Fan, R.; Wen, B.; Zhang, J. et al. Coronavirus Infections in the Central Nervous System and Respiratory Tract Show Distinct Features in Hospitalized Children. Intervirology 2016, 59, 3, 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1159/000453066

Xu, X.; Chen, P.; Wang, J.; Feng, J.; Zhou, H. et al. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci. China Life Sci 2020, 63, 457–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5

Tang, N.; Li, D.; Wang, X.; Sun, Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. J Thromb Haemost 2020, 18, 844-847. https://doi.org/10.1111/jth.14768

Politi, L. S.; Salsano, E.; Grimaldi, M. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Alteration of the Brain in a Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Anosmia. JAMA Neurol 2020, 77, p. 1028. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2125

Li, J.; Gao, J.; Xu, Y. P.; Zhou, T.-l.; Jin, Ya.-Yi.; Lou, J.-N. [Expression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptors, ACE2 and CD209L in different organ derived microvascular endothelialcells]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007, 87, 12, 833–837.

Najjar, S.; Najjar, A.; Chong, D. J. et al. Central nervous system complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: integrative concepts of pathophysiology and case reports. J Neuroinflammation 2020, 17, p. 231. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01896-0

Taquet, M.; Geddes, J. R.; Husain, M. et al. 6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records. Lancet Psychiatry 2021, 8, 5, 416-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00084-5

Zhou, P.; Yang, X. L.; Wang, X. G.; Hu, B.; Zhang, L. et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020, 579, 7798, 270-273.

Paniz-Mondolfis, A.; Bryce, C.; Grimes, Z.; Gordon, R. E.; Raidy, J. et al. Central nervous system involvement by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). J Med Virol 2020, 92, 7, 699-102. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25915

Bolay, H.; Gül, A.; Baykan, B. COVID-19 is a Real Headache! Headache 2020, 60, 7, 1415-1421. doi: 10.1111/head.13856

Bereczki, D.; Stang, R.; Böjti, P.; Kovács, T. Neurological aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Ideggyogy Sz 2020, 73, 05 - 06, 171-175. https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.73.0171(

Junior, I.; Nascimento, B.; Cacic, N.; von Groote, Th. C.; Jauarajah, U. et al. Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) in Humans: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Med 2020, 9, 4, p. 941. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040941

Li, Y.; Li, M.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Chang, J. et al. Acute cerebrovascular disease following COVID-19: a single center, retrospective, observational study. Stroke Vasc Neurol 2020, 5, 3, 279-284. https://doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000431

Shi, S.; Qin, M.; Shen B.; Cai, Yu.; Liu, T. et al. Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Cardiol 2020, 5, 7, 802-810. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.0950

Chen, T.; Wu, D.; Chen, H. et al. Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study. BMJ 2020, 368, m1091. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1091 2020;368:m1091.

Wijeratne, T.; Crewther, S. Post-COVID 19 Neurological Syndrome (PCNS); a novel syndrome with challenges for the global neurology community. J Neurol Sci 2020, 419, p. 117179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117179

Zhao, H.; Shen, D.; Zhou, H.; Liu, J.; Chen, Sh. Guillen-Barre syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: causality or coincidence? Lancet 2020, 19, 5, 383-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(20)30109-5

Sedaghat, Z.; Karimi, N. Guillain Barre syndrome associated with COVID-19 infection: A case report. J Clin Neurosci 2020, 76, 233–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.04.062

Wang, L.; Shen, Y.; Li, M.; Chuang, H.; Ye, Y.; Zhao, H.; Wang, H. Clinical manifestations and evidence of neurological involvement in 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurol 2020, 267, 10, 2777-2789. doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-09974-2

Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, Yu.; Ma, Yu.; Zuo, W. Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCov. BioRxiv 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.26.919985

Mao, J.; Jin, H.; Wang, M.; Hu, Y.; Chen, S. et al. Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. JAMA Neurol 2020, 77, 6, 683-690. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127

Netland, J.; Meyerholz, D. K.; Moore, S.; Kassell, M.; Perlman, S. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice transgenic for human ACE2. J Virol 2008, 82, 15, 7264–7275. https://doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00737-08

Galanopoulou, A. S.; Ferastraoaru, V.; Correa, D. J.; Cherian, K.; Duberstain, S. et al. EEG findings in acutely ill patients investigated for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: A small case series preliminary report. Epilepsia Open 2020, 5, 314. https://doi.org/10.1002/epi4.12399

Kubota, T.; Gajera, P. K.; Kuroda, N. Meta-analysis of EEG findings in patients with COVID-19. Epilepsy Behav 2021, 115, p. 107682. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107682

Antony, A. R.; Haneef, Z. Systematic review of EEG findings in 617 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Seizure 2020, 83, 234-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2020.10.014

Korkushko, O. V.; Lishnevskaya, V. Yu.; Duzhak, G. V. The method of determining the functional state of the microvascular endothelium in the elderly. Patent 46415А of Ukraine, bulletin 5.

Paniz-Mondolfis, A.; Bryce, C.; Grimes, Z.; Gordon, R. E.; Raidy, J. et al. Central nervous system involvement by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). J Med Virol 2020, 92, 7, 699-102. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25915

Published
2022-02-03
How to Cite
Bezrukov, V., & Kuznetsov, V. (2022). Coronavirus disease 2019: neurological aspects. Review and own research. Ageing and Longevity, 2(4), 27-39. Retrieved from http://aging-longevity.org.ua/index.php/journal-description/article/view/40
Section
Статьи

Most read articles by the same author(s)